Castenet, Laurent (ONERA / DEMR, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, BP 74025, 31055 Toulouse cedex 4, France)
Since the first satellite communication systems in the sixties, satellite communications systems proved to be an efficient way to establish communications between locations separated by a long distance. The first fixed satellite communication systems were established at Cband and the majority of the current systems is developed at Ku-band. However, these frequency bands are now saturated and higher frequency bands need to be used. In the mean time, terrestrial networks have been strongly developed and nowadays, the competition between satellite and terrestrial networks does not really exist. Today, satellite networks are integrated into the terrestrial networks to form the so-called Global Information Infrastructure (GII).