LLC Converter Design in Capacitive Operation utilizes ZCS for IGBTs – a Concept Study for a 2.2 kW Automotive DC-DC Stage

Conference: PCIM Europe digital days 2020 - International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Renewable Energy and Energy Management
07/07/2020 - 07/08/2020 at Deutschland

Proceedings: PCIM Europe digital days 2020

Pages: 8Language: englishTyp: PDF

Urbaneck, Daniel; Rehlaender, Philipp; Schafmeister, Frank; Boecker, Joachim (Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany)

LLC resonant converters generally employ MOSFETs in the inverter stage, which can be of half-bridge (HB) or full-bridge (FB) type. The generally weak intrinsic (body) diodes of the MOSFETs cause turn-on losses when being forced to hard current commutations finally leading to the components self-destruction when operated constantly in this way. Consequently, zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation is more or less essential in a silicon (Si) MOSFET-based HB or FB. To ensure ZVS, the LLC is operated in the inductive region, i.e. with lagging resonant current. On the contrary, IGBTs show dominant turn-off losses and therefore are conventionally not applied in LLCs typically requiring high switching frequencies to achieve low output voltages. Yet, if the LLC is intentionally designed for the capacitive region, i. e. operation with leading current, zero-current switching (ZCS) enabling IGBTs in the inverter stage can be ensured. This paper explores in detail the LLC in the capacitive operating region and gives design considerations for a capacitive LLC utilizing both robust and cost-efficient IGBTs for an exemplary 2.2 kW automotive on-board DC-DC converter application. The results of a loss analysis show that the LLC resonant converter can be operated well in the capacitive region. In the given case, significantly lower overall and 30 % lower inverter stage losses are achieved in the thermally relevant worst-case comparison with an inductive LLC based on Si MOSFETs.