This part of IEC 60076 specifies the insulation requirements and the corresponding insulation tests with reference to specific windings and their terminals. It also recommends external clearances in air (Clause 16).
The insulation levels and dielectric tests which are specified in this standard apply to the internal insulation only. Whilst it is reasonable that the rated withstand voltage values which are specified for the internal insulation of the transformer should also be taken as a reference for its external insulation, this may not be true in all cases. A failure of the non-self-restoring internal insulation is catastrophic and normally leads to the transformer being out of service for a long period, while an external flashover may involve only a short interruption of service without causing lasting damage. Therefore, it may be that, for increased safety, higher test voltages are specified by the purchaser for the internal insulation of the transformer than for the external insulation of other components in the system. When such a distinction is made, the external clearances should be adjusted to fully cover the internal insulation test requirements.
Annex E sets out some of the principles used in assigning the tests, test levels and clearances in air to the transformer according to the highest voltage for equipment Um.

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