IEC 60068-2-31:2008 deals with a test procedure for simulating the effects of rough handling shocks, primarily in equipment-type specimens, the effects of knocks, jolts and falls which may be received during repair work or rough handling in operational use. This procedure does not simulate the effects of impacts received during transportation as loosely constrained cargo. Where the effects of loose cargo transportation are to be assessed, test Ee: Bounce should be used. Also this procedure does not simulate the effects of shock applied to installed equipments. Where this effect is to be assessed refer to test Ea: Shock. Testing should only be specified for equipment likely to receive such rough handling, for example those of small to medium size and mass, and should only be applied to those faces and corners where there is a risk of such treatment being encountered. In general, equipment which is frequently handled and serviced (for example field equipment and unit spares) can be considered at risk, whereas equipment forming an integral part of a permanent installation would not normally be considered at risk and need not be tested. Testing may not be applicable to fragile unprotected equipment of irregular shape (for example aircraft nose radar) which, when removed from the installation would be contained in a handling frame or jig. It may however be applicable to these items of equipment when they are in their transit case or in their handling frame or jig. For equipment which stands only on one face (for example the normal base) the test is generally only applied to that face. Shock tests are performed on the specimen when fixed to the test machine. Drop and topple, free fall, repeated free fall and bounce tests are performed with the specimen free. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1969 and constitutes a technical revision. The major changes with regard to the previous edition concern the introduction of soft packaging tests, where appropriate. This new edition of IEC 60068-2-31 now incorporates the second edition of IEC 60068-2-32 (1975).